Roleplaying


Picture for

Photo by Bifford The Youngest (retrieved on 30.09.2009)

Short description

The roleplaying method can be used in preschool, school, and adult education. An issue relevant for the group (possibly conflict-creating) is presented by having participants play relevant roles. This method should be used mainly when it goes about fostering facets of actions and taking live-action observer positions. This method can especially develop the perception, empathy, flexibility, openness, cooperation, communication, and problem-solving skills.

Process description

Preparation:

  • Set the subject.
  • Clarify the roles. Check whether each player is clear about their role.
  • Set observation criteria and assign the monitoring tasks.

Playtime:

  • Identify yourself with your role.
  • Perform the play without interruption. Evaluation phase
  • Finish your role.
  • Evaluate the play thoroughly.

Examples of evaluation points:

  • How did the players feel?
  • Were the roles adhered to?
  • Which behaviors and sentiments of the players appeared pleasing or displeasing?
  • Were the arguments to the point?
  • How were the language, facial expressions, gestures used?
  • Have you become aware of your own attitudes or views?
  • Which denouements were relevant to decision making? What quality had the decision making?
  • What are the implications for the future behaviour of the players?

Required resources

  • Text with description of the setting
  • Role cards
  • Observation sheets

Examples

This method can be utilized, for example, when forming a company. Let's assume that four friends want to start a business. They have options to create a limited partnership, general partnership, public limited company, or corporation. After students acquire enough information about the different types of business entities, they discuss the matter with each other while playing different roles. The discussion should cover respective advantages and disadvantages of each types of business entity.

At the end, a decision is made, if possible, what legal form the company should use. Finally, a the groups reflects about the roleplaying and does a repeat using different members of the group.

Comments

The roleplaying is not about the solution that ultimately emerges but about the way of arriving at that solution. Therefore, the evaluation of the roleplaying is as important as the roleplaying itself.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/role-playing

Circle of results


Picture for Circle of results

Image by james_michael_hill (Access: 28.09.2009)

Short description

The results of group work – like a Powerpoint presentation, a website or a letter – are presented within in a small group.

Process description

  • Form a group
  • Set time limit
  • Each person presents the results of his/her work to the group. Others can ask questions and make suggestions.

Required resources

A place to meet

Examples

Do you have some examples, small changes or interesting contexts?

Comments

If several groups have worked on the same task or topic, the instructor can also present a solution for all after they are done. Such a presentation is usually well received since the participants are already activated.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/ring-of-results

Note cards


Picture for Note cards

Image by Andy Ciordia (Access: 30.09.2009)

Short description

A method to learn facts, concepts or vocabulary by heart.

Process description

Basic Procedure

  1. Take a card
  2. Read it
  3. Think of a response
  4. Turn the card and check your response
  5. Put the card away

Sorting method

  1. First, all cards are in the first compartment.
  2. If you have answered a question correctly, put it in the next compartment.
  3. When the first compartment has been emptied, start on the second one.
  4. If you answer correctly, move the card to the third if not, move it back to the first.

Required resources

Note cards and a box with dividers. Questions can also be assembled electronically and printed with the computer.

Comments

This way of learning is very systematic and is more suitable for memorizing than for learning new material.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/record-cards

Question and answer


Picture for Question and answer

Image by Torley (Access: 01.10.2009)

Short description

This is a more social variety of the question and answer method.

Process description

  1. Write questions on a flipchart or project them onto a wall
  2. Provide possible responses on cards on a pin board
  3. Write question numbers on a flip chart
  4. Each participant grabs an answer and hangs it next to the question

Required resources

  • Pin board
  • flipchart
  • cards
  • questions on a flipchart or projected to a wall (beamer)

Examples

Do you have some examples, small changes or interesting contexts?

Comments

You know that it works well if people engage in a discussion. Adjust the number of questions to the number of participants. Each should be able to grab a card.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/question-and-answer

Pros and cons


Picture for Pros and cons

Photo by ntr23 (retrieved on 30.09.2009)

Short description

Showing two sides of the same coin or debating pros and cons.

Process description

  1. As the instructor, you divide the participants into two groups: one pro and one con. This can be done, for example, by assigning participants randomly to the groups.
  2. The groups familiarise themselves with the topic and prepare argumentation points, writing them on cards.
  3. The results can be recorded on a flipchart.
  4. Individual points are then argued by one representative of each group, resulting in a detailed list of pros and cons.

Required resources

Paper or word processor

Comments

This can also be well implemented using a forum in a learning platform. Two discussion threads need to be started: Pros and Cons.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/pros-and-cons

Projektmethode


Bild zur Methode Projektmethode

Foto von Kofoed (abgerufen am 05.02.2010)

Kurzbeschreibung

Im Projektunterricht entwickeln Lernende und Lehrende aus einem Problem, einer Idee oder einem gesetzten Ziel einen Bearbeitungsplan, der unter Beachtung selbst gesetzter Regeln durchgeführt wird, und an dessen Ende das fertige Produkt in Form einer Broschüre, einer Internet-Veröffentlichung oder eines Computerprogramms etc. steht.

Ablauf

  1. Die Projektinitiative – Sammlung von Ideen. Ein Projekt kann auf Anregung des Seminarleiters oder der Teilnehmer initiiert werden. Dabei orientiert sich das Projektthema an den Interessen der Beteiligten. So könnte ein Seminarleiter die Ideenfindung für die Projekte moderieren. Die Ideen könnten als Karten an eine Pinnwand gehängt werden.
  2. Auseinandersetzung mit der Projektinitiative. Während die erste Projektphase in der Sammlung der Projektideen bestand, werden diese nun gemeinsam auf deren Realisierbarkeit geprüft und anschließend in einer Projektskizze konkretisiert. Die kurzen Projektbeschreibungen können mit an die Pinnwand zu den Projektideen gehängt und von den Lernenden kurz vorgetragen werden.
  3. Entwicklung des Betätigungsgebietes – der Projektplan als Ergebnis. Nachdem ein Thema gefunden wurde, wird von den Beteiligten gemeinsam ein zielgerichteter Plan zur Bearbeitung des Themas entwickelt, der der Selbstorganisation und Selbstverantwortung der Lernenden obliegt. Der Projektplan als Arbeitsplan zur Bewältigung des Problems wird in der jeweiligen Projektgruppe erarbeitet.
  4. Verstärkte Aktivitäten im Betätigungsgebiet – Ausführung des Projektplanes. Nun werden die geplanten Aktivitäten von den Beteiligten durchgeführt und die Projektpläne bei Bedarf angepasst. Der Seminarleiter übernimmt moderierende Funktionen, berät die Teilnehmer in fachlichen Fragen und geht auf gruppendynamische Prozesse ein, wie z. B. Konflikte, Überforderung oder Zeitdruck.
  5. Abschluss des Projektes. Ist ein Produkt, wie z. B. ein Programm, fertig gestellt, wird somit auch das Projekt beendet. Wichtig für das Feedback ist die öffentliche Präsentation des Produktes, z. B. auf einer Internetseite oder innerhalb der Seminargruppe durch einen Präsentationsvortrag.
  6. Fixpunkte und Metainteraktionen zum Projektgeschehen. Fixpunkte und Metainteraktionen treten bei Bedarf und parallel zu den anderen Phasen in Erscheinung. Fixpunkte dienen der Reorganisation und Orientierung, sind Mittel gegen blinde Betriebsamkeit und fehlende Abstimmung zwischen einzelnen Gruppen.

Benötigte Tools und Materialien

Eine Checkliste: https://downloads.ausbildernetz.de/downloads/m6/checkliste_Projektmethode.doc

Offline:

  • Stifte
  • Papier

Online:

  • PC und Internetzugang

Kommentare

Ein wichtiger Schritt für die Verbesserung des Projektverlaufes und der Zusammenarbeit der Lernenden und Lehrenden ist die Auswertung des Projektes durch Feedback von außen sowie innerhalb der Projektgruppe.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/project-method

Prezentacja wyników


Prezentacja wyników

Photo by oberazi (strona odwiedzona: 15.12.2009)

Krótki opis

Prezentacja wyników odbywa się w grupie - z wykorzystaniem Powerpointa, strony internetowej, itp. Każdy z uczestników prezentuje wyniki swojej pracy grupie.

Opis procesu

  • tworzymy grupę;
  • ustalamy datę i miejsce spotkania;
  • każda osoba prezentuje wyniki swojej pracy, grupa może zadawać pytania lub przedstawiać swoje sugestie i pomysły.

Wymagane zasoby

  • Miejsce na spotkanie

Komentarze

Jeśli nad tym samym tematem pracowało kilka grup, można przedstawić jeszcze raz wyniki uczestnikom wszystkich grup. Taka prezentacja, po fazie aktywnego uczenia się, zwykle stanowi atrakcyjne podsumowanie pracy.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/presentation

Picture painting


Picture for Picture painting

Photo by Clara J./PIXELIO (Access: 28.09.2009)

Short description

Participants paint a term provided by the facilitator together in a small group. The pictures are presented to the other groups and discussed.

Process description

  1. Participants are split up in small groups of 3 to 5 people. Each group receives paper for drawing and pens.
  2. The facilitator names a topic, a spontaneous question or term related to the topic (What would an ideal office look like?).
  3. The group members draw a picture regarding the proposed idea or term. This should take about 15 mins (possibly with light background music.
  4. Each group presents their picture to the other groups who then can guess the content and the message of the picture.
  5. Next, each group comments on their own picture. The facilitator jots down key words on cards. These are then placed onto the pin board next to the pictures.
  6. After all groups have presented their pictures, the keywords are analysed and possibly clustered.
  7. The collected keywords can serve as a starting point for further work on the subject. Thus focus topics for forming work groups can be identified.

Required resources

  • Big sheets of paper for each group,
  • Crayons or markers in different colours
  • Cards, pins and a pin board
  • possibly music

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/picture-painting

Photo Essay


Picture for Photo Essay

Image by Thomas Hawk (Access: 01.10.2009)

Short description

A Photo Essay is a collection of photos that tell a story. Very few words, if any, are used to get the message across to the audience. The photo essay may be adapted to include historical information that is important to the content of the pictures. Adding music or special audio effects can enhance any multimedia presentation and set the mood that the author wants to evoke. A photo essay is a project that allows students to use higher order thinking skills.

Process description

Topic related to a unit of study is chosen. Using a central theme, concept or idea, photo essays bring photographs, text, (minimal amounts) and sound together using a multimedia package such as Powerpoint or Windows XP free Windows Movie Maker. Another idea is to have students take their own digital pictures and create a photo essay using original work. Scanned images of student art work may be used as well.

Required resources

Computer, Internet

Peer quizzes


Picture for Peer quizzes

Image by o!ivier (Access: 08.01.2010)

Short description

The peer quizzes enable learners to revise course materials and self-assess their progress in learning. When all of the participants are engaged in creating questions and redoing the materials, there is a greater chance that they'll remember much more.

Process description

  1. Email learners with the information about the activity.
  2. Each of the participants need to contribute to the activity with at least one question related to the course material.
  3. Learners post their questions to designated discussion forum (questions cannot be repeated).
  4. Now, learners should post their answers to the questions to the designated discussion forum.
  5. Review the answers and encourage learners to go through all the questions and all the answers.

Required resources

Access to online asynchronous discussion board and emails.

Comments

The items from the activity, can be later used in tests and quizzes from a given piece of material.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/peer-quizzes