Learning by teaching


Picture for Learning by teaching

Photo by Rex Pe (retrieved on 21.11.2009)

Short description

Learning by teaching is an activity-oriented teaching method, where pupils or students learn by teaching the material to each other. It can be used for any subject, school type, or age. Although the term is sometimes used to refer to situations where pupils from higher grades teach younger pupils, the term "Learning by Teaching" established itself in the educational profession as mutual teaching within a classroom. In Germany, learning through teaching in its modern form is linked to Jean-Pol Martin, who developed its overall pedagogical concept and disseminated it through his network of contacts.[1]

Process description

Learners or learning groups are assigned a topic. They have fixed time to collect and process the materials in order to prepare passing the acquired knowledge to other learners.

Required resources

Any possibility can be used. If the knowledge is gathered and organised on a computer, learners must have editing privileges when using, for example, a wiki or an LMS. They also need to posses sufficient technical competence not to be distracted by operational issues but focus on the main learning objective.

Examples

The demo course shows learning units which have been created by trainees (partly as a group) and subsequently completed by all participants of a course under the guidance of the "teachers".[2] Please click on "Demo" when the page opens, then continue to "Apprentices: Seminars".

Comments

In the LMS "sudile," the co-authors function exists to support this method. The author of a course can create any number of "empty" units and assign students authoring rights. Once the course is loaded into the system, those units become available to all course participants. See the detailed article about the learning platform sudile.[3]

Diagrammabfrage


Bild zur Methode Diagrammabfrage

Foto von mkandlez (abgerufen am 30.09.2009)

Kurzbeschreibung

Mit Diagrammabfragen können Einschätzungen über den Wissensstand einer Gruppe zu verschiedenen Themen, die für ein Seminar relevant sind, getroffen werden.

Ablauf

  1. Zeichnen Sie auf ein Flipchart-Blatt ein Diagramm. Auf der X-Achse benennen Sie die Themen, zu denen sich die Lernenden einschätzen sollen ("MS Word, Internet Recherche, Makroprogrammierung"). Auf der Y-Achse geben Sie Stufen für das Beherrschen dieser Themen ein ("gar nicht, etwas, gut, sehr gut, Profi").
  2. Die Teilnehmer können nun am Beginn des Seminars zu jedem Thema eine Selbsteinschätzung abgeben. Am besten läuft es, wenn alle Teilnehmer zusammen zum Flipchart gehen und dort die Kreuze machen.
  3. Als Trainer werten Sie dann die Selbsteinschätzungen aus. Evtl. haben Sie ja "Ausreißer" dabei, auf die Sie dann noch einmal eingehen können. Manchmal kommt es vor, dass ein Teilnehmer nicht das nötige Vorwissen für einen Kurs hat. Oder jemand anderes ist bereits "Profi". In beiden Fällen können Sie durch ein Gespräch die Voraussetzungen bzw. die Motivation für den Kurs klären.
  4. Am Ende des Seminars oder eines Seminartags können sich die Teilnehmer wieder auf dem Diagramm eintragen. Diesmal mit einer anderen Farbe, damit sie sehen können, wie sie sich durch den Kurs in den Themen verbessert haben.

Benötigte Tools und Materialien

Offline:

  • Flipchart-Blatt
  • 5-10 Flipchart-Marker
  • Kreppband oder Pins

Kommentare

Die Methode lockert die Atmosphäre auch etwas auf, da sie zusammen an das Flipchart gehen. Auch sollten die Teilnehmer nicht einzeln die Kreuze machen, da sie sich beobachtet fühlen könnten. Besser alle zusammen oder in größeren Gruppen.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/knowledge-statistics

Funky Questions - Icebreaker


Picture for Funky Questions - Icebreaker

Image by ezioman (Access: 29.09.2009)

Short description

This is an ice breaker activity that can be used face to face and online.

Process description

It is fun to do and introduces a personal and emotional element into a course. People get to know each other in a different way and have other topics to connect with each other.

Required resources

Only clever questions suitable for the audience.

Examples

  • If you had a time machine that would work only once, what point in the future or in history would you visit?
  • If you could go anywhere in the world, where would you go?
  • If your house was burning down, what three objects would you try and save?
  • If you could talk to any one person now living, who would it be and why?
  • If you HAD to give up one of your senses (hearing, seeing, feeling, smelling, tasting) which would it be and why?
  • If you were an animal, what would you be and why?
  • Do you have a pet? If not, what sort of pet would you like?
  • Name a gift you will never forget.
  • Name one thing you really like about yourself.
  • What's your favourite thing to do in the summer?
  • Who's your favourite cartoon character, and why?
  • Does your name have a special meaning and or were you named after someone special?
  • What is the hardest thing you have ever done?

Comments

We have found this to work as an incentive for people to go look at someones online entry. Instead of pushing people to log on this may create a pull :)

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/icebreaker

Hot seat


Picture for Hot seat

Photo by privatenobby (Access: 29.09.2009)

Short description

A person on a „hot seat“ responds to the questions of the group members. This activity can be used for reviewing a topic or asking questions about that person.

Process description

  1. Decide on a topic
  2. Explain the goal of the activity
  3. Form a semi circle with the chairs, leaving one chair at the top of the circle empty
  4. Ask someone to have a seat on the hot seat
  5. Ask questions!

Required resources

  • Chairs

Examples

A prerequisite for this activity is a very trusting group climate. Participants can refuse to answer questions of a too personal nature.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/hot-seat

Homeworks anonymous


Picture for Homeworks anonymous

Image by TheAlieness GiselaGiardino (retrieved on 05.10.2009)

Short description

The goal of this activity is for participants to become more aware of their own writing process and learn from the strategies of others.

Process description

Participants receive the following starting text which they are supposed to complete in writing….

I am the project report of … and I have been thinking.... I don’t want anybody else to write me. But it is not easy with him/her. Therefore, I am glad I can share my concerns here…

Afterwards, participants are asked to work in pairs and read their texts to each other. The idea is that they exchange their views on their writing strategies and experiences with each other.

Required resources

  • Paper
  • Pen

Examples

None

Comments

The instructor should watch that participants do not just share their problems but also make constructive suggestions for improving each others writing strategy or point out what works well.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/homework-anonymous

Zukunftswerkstatt


Bild zur Methode Zukunftswerkstatt

Foto von ghbrett (abgerufen am 08.10.2009)

Kurzbeschreibung

Die Zukunftswerkstatt bietet die Möglichkeit, neue Ideen für die Lösung eines Problems oder die Planung neuer Ziele einer Organisation zu finden.

Ablauf

Kritik- oder Beschwerdephase

Der Ist-Zustand wird ermittelt. Die Teilnehmer halten fest, was alles nicht dem „Optimum“ entspricht. Sie sollten dabei frei von Zwängen sein und eine schonungslose Kritik üben können.

Phantasie und Utopie

Es werden Wege aufgezeigt, wie das „Optimum“ erreicht werden kann. Das kann z. B. mit dem Satz „Es wäre schön, wenn ...“ eingeleitet werden. Kritik an den Vorschlägen (und seien sie noch so verrückt), ist zu unterbinden. Kommentare wie „Das ist nicht machbar, weil ...“ sind zu vermeiden.

Praxistest und Verwirklichung

Die in den beiden vorangegangenen Phasen entwickelten Ideen werden nun einem Praxistest unterzogen. Es ist die Frage zu beantworten, was kann verwirklicht werden, was ist realistisch.

Benötigte Tools und Materialien

Offline:

  • Karten
  • Wandtafeln
  • Stifte

Kommentare

Für die ersten beiden Phasen bietet sich die Brainstorming-Methode an, weil hier die Ideen nicht nur erfasst werden, sondern auch eine Wichtung und Sortierung möglich ist.

Flipchart-Quiz


Bild zur Methode Flipchart-Quiz

Foto von pauly (abgerufen am 29.09.2009)

Kurzbeschreibung

Sie kennen das: Fragen und Antworten. Hier aber eine soziale Variante.

Ablauf

  1. Mit einem Beamer wird eine bestimmte Anzahl von Fragen an die Wand projiziert.
  2. An einer Pinnwand hängen Antwortmöglichkeiten.
  3. Auf dem Flipchart stehen die Fragenummern.
  4. Jeder Teilnehmer greift sich eine Antwort und hängt sie zur Frage.

Benötigte Tools und Materialien

Offline:

  • Pinnwand
  • Flipchart
  • Karten
  • Fragen auf einem Blatt oder am Beamer

Kommentare

Gut läuft es, wenn zwischendurch diskutiert wird. Passen Sie die Menge der Fragen der Anzahl der Teilnehmer an. Jeder Teilnehmer soll sich dann eine Antwort greifen.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/flipchartquiz

Flip chart picture


Picture for Flip chart picture

Photo by tim caynes (retrieved on 29.09.2009)

Short description

A group of learners works through a topic, which is then presented as a drawing.

Process description

  1. A group prepares a subject - for example, reads a text and searches the Internet.
  2. An overview is produced on a flip chart. However, without words - just as a drawing.
  3. The other groups have to explain the drawing.
  4. A discussion follows.

Required resources

Flipchart and camera

Comments

Tell participants that no fancy painting is expected.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/flipchart-picture

Flash Light


Picture for Flash Light

Photo by Albrecht E. Arnold/PIXELIO (Access: 28.09.2009)

Short description

All participants make a short statement regarding how they feel at the moment, how happy they are with the course or with progress in the project. It's a quick activity for finding out the mood or the ideas of a group of people.

Process description

The facilitator throws the ball to a participant who makes a statement. The facilitator should not comment on the statements but remember them or take notes in order to be able to later say something to the group. The person who made a statement throws the ball to the next person.

Required resources

  • Pen
  • Paper
  • Chat
  • Forum

Examples

Sample questions:

In order to clarify expectations and prerequisites:

  • What are your expectations today?
  • The meeting will (not) be successful if …..

To take a quick opinion poll:

  • How do you personally rate the results achieved so far?

When closing a session:

  • How do you rate your accomplishments?

Comments

Make sure the statements are short by announcing before this feedback round that everybody has only 20 seconds. If there are too many participants, the feedback can be done in writing:

  • with cards which can be put on a pin board
  • a diagram on a flip chart on which participants stick a dot to indicate a quick vote

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/flash-light

Find someone who ...


Picture for Find someone who...

Image by iQoncept (Access: 05.11.2009)

Short description

An activity that helps to build up community amongst people in any online course. It motivates learners to search for information and meet other learners in the course.

Process description

  1. Each learner sends to a facilitator email with the information that other participants are unlikely to know (e.g. MA degree in philosophy, four children, parachuting aficionado, etc.).
  2. The facilitator emails each learner with some piece of information concerning one of the participants, he/she is to locate.
  3. The learners now can ask questions on the discussion board helping them to find the person (they cannot, however, ask straightforward questions e.g. did anyone studied philosophy?). A learner may ask for clues such as: does anyone know Kant's ideas?
  4. The facilitator monitors the whole discussion.
  5. When the learners are ready to give their answers, the facilitator asks them to post the names on the discussion board.
  6. Each learner reviews the postings checking whether other participants recognised him or her.

Required resources

  • online asynchronous discussion board
  • access to emails

Comments

The learners can also search for information connected with various courses they took part in and some previous experience with trainings.

The description of the activity „Find someone who...“ was prepared on the basis of R. Watkins's „75 e-learning activities“.

PSI: https://psi.methopedia.eu/learning-activity/find-someone-who